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The regenerative mechanisms of platelet rich plasma (PRP)

Orthobiologics continue to gain vast popularity in many areas of medical science, especially in the field of regenerative medicine. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) derivatives are orthobiologic tools of particular interest come on used in orthopaedics and musculoskeletal medicine. These biologic products can be obtained via centrifugation of a patient's whole blood and the components can then be subsequently isolated, concentrated, activated via calcium chloride and ultimately administered into injured tissues, particularly in areas where standard healing is disrupted, specifically to facilitate healing and promote recovery of damaged tissues. The elevated concentration of platelets above the basal value enables accelerated growth of various tissues with minimal side effects, thus, via the release of bioactive protein growth factors. The application of autologous orthobiologics is a relatively new biotechnology undergoing continuous expansion which continues to reveal optimistic results in the stimulation and enhanced healing of various kinds of tissue injuries. The local release of growth factors and cytokines contained in platelet alpha granules accelerates and ameliorates the natural biological tissue repair process, mimicking and supporting standard repair and healing. This effect is greatly enhanced upon combination with the fibrinolytic system, which are essential for complete regeneration capacities. Fibrinolytic reactions can dictate proper cellular recruitment of certain cell populations such as mesenchymal stem cells and other immunomodulatory agents. Additionally, these reactions also control proteolytic activity in areas of tussue healing and regenerative processes of mesodermal tissues including bone, cartilage, and muscle, which makes it particularly valuable for musculoskeletal health, for instance.


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